The Genomic Diet (ebook on line in English)

The invisible body

The invisible body



THE INVISIBLE BODY

The Genomic Diet: 7st chapter   The invisible body

The invisible body, what is it?

We have an important part in in our body that almost seems invisible. It is somewhere near the intestines and it weighs about 1 to 1.5 kilograms.

The intestinal mucosa is divided in a series of folds, villi, and microvilli. They have an average area of 250 to 450 square meters. When compared to the surface area of the respiratory surface (which is only 60 square meters), the importance of the intestinal mucosa is explicitly suggested.

The invisible body that lives on this surface is the intestinal flora. It is a community of trillions of microbes that are native in the GI tract. They are harmless. They consist of 14 families, 45 genera, and 400-500 different species.

The international consortium Meta Hit (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract) carried out a genetic analysis and concluded that the gene complex micro biome (Human Microbiome Project HMP) belongs to the microbiota. It has 150 times more genes than the humans that host it (Dusko and MetaHIT, 2010). The small intestines are dominated by facultative anaerobes such as Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and Bifidobacterium and Clostridia (L. Dethlefsen et al. 2006).

The ileum is especially home to as strict anaerobic microbes such as Bacteroides and Clostridia (Ruminococcus, Butyrovibrio, Fusobacterium and Eubacterium) and Bifi dobacterium peptococcus, as well as facultative anaerobes such as Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriacea (Rastall et al. 2004). 98% of the bacterial flora consists of eubiotiche.

The remaining 2% are potentially pathogenic populations. The intestinal microflora produces enzymes, regulates the acid-base (pH) balance, and contributes in GI motility. The functions of the bacterial flora are vary from metabolizing of nutrients and enzymes, adjusting the volume and composition of gases, synthesizing vitamins (Vit.B12, K), absorbing bile acids, hormones, and drugs, and forming fecal matter.

The bacterial flora of each individual depends on the type of delivery and energy supply a person has had as an infant.(http://www.daphnelab.com/download/Articolo%20Flora%20 Batterica%20Intestinale.pdf)

During a normal vaginal delivery, the baby comes in contact with the bacterial flora of the vaginal walls, and sometimes, it can even come into contact with some of the mother’s fecal matter. During a cesarean delivery, the infant cannot make contact with the bacterial flora of the mother. The newborn will be influenced by these environmental factors. Dietary factors will also be significant. Breastfeeding leads to a type of bacterial flora called Bifidus, while also leading to the development of Bifidobacteria bacterteria, Fusobacteria and Cocci. As the child is weaned and grows into an adult, the bacterial flora is further diversifies.




The invisible body, a barrier

Thanks to the introduction of drugs and toxic substances, they subsequently diversify. The bacterial flora is a barrier for microbial enzymes. They protect the body from damage caused by any harmful microorganisms.

Improper diet leads to intestinal dysbiosis. The intestine doesn’t only perform its function in absorbing nutrients, but it plays a role in the immune system.

In fact, the gut is associated with GALT (Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue), lymphatic tissue. That is, in the digestive tract, it’s about 70% of the immune system.

The equilibrium is due to the correct recognition of the food antigens by the GALT and by the bacterial flora with the right relations with Eubiotics/pathogenics. If these relationships are altered, foods hypersensitivity arises as well as imbalances in the immune system and chronic inflammation.

On to intestinal dysbiosis.

A person becomes constipated or has diarrhea or alternating discharges.
The person may experience bloating, flatulence, and catarrh. Changes in the skin such as acne or dermatitis-type reactions, poor absorption of nutrients, diabetes, candidiasis, etc., can also happen. Even with the introduction with of dyes, solvents, preservatives, heavy metals such as aluminum and mercury, pesticides and drugs (especially antibiotics), anti-inflammatory agents, laxatives and dental amalgam, in our food, the effects vary from body to body.

Alterations in the intestinal flora can also lead, according to recent studies and examinations, to weight gain because it alters the relationship between Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes. The Firmicutes is associated witht eh absorption of glucose and, consequently, in diabetes and obesity

According to Peter Turnbaugh, a researcher at the University of Washington St Louis, EE.UU, an increase of Bacteriodetes when we put on a diet and a decrease in Firmicutes is needed.

Poor digestion of proteins and amino acid decarboxylation leads to the production of amines that produce toxic gases.

 



 

Table 1

cystine and cysteine

mercaptan

histidine

histamine

lysine

cadaverine

ornithine

putrescine

tyrosine

tyramine

tryptophan

indole and skatole

 

In the intestines, we can find a gas mixture of 99% overriding nitrogen gas (N 2), oxygen (O 2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), hydrogen (H 2), and methane (CH 4)

These gases are odorless. The unpleasant odor of flatulence is associated with the bacterial volatile products arising from the degradation of plant and animal proteins such as indole and skatole, mercaptan, butyric acid, hydrosulfides.

The content of intestinal gas varies from person to person and the type of diet. The amount of gas varies from 200 ml to 600 ml per day. This can be divided into 15 parts of 40 ml, but this amount can oscillate even at a production of 2000 ml

The chemical composition of the gases will give us useful information regarding digestion if carbon dioxide and hydrogen will be mainly absorbed in carbohydrates.If nitrogen prevails, aerophagia follows due to swallowing leading to anxiety states. They also eat their meals quickly, suffer from organic disorders such as peptic ulcer, biliary problems, irritable bowel syndrome, hiatal hernia; excessive smoking, chewing gums and dentures are not standardized.

The intestinal gas and flatulence can be countered by the use of Lactobacillus plantarum, which, in addition to the control of pathogens, is also used by the food industry for cured meats, olives, and for aiding in cheese ripening.

The L. Salivarius is useful in colitis and Crohn’s disease. It has a positive effect against Gram. The Lactobacillo Acidophilus (of Doderline) is the most studied bacteria and is considered as one of the best microbes to activate the immune system.

It is used in cases of cystitis, in the treatment of candida, and to restore the balance of intestinal flora. Disbiosis fermentative and putrefactive are contrasted by Ramnosi and bifid, which are also useful in case of constipation.

It is not enough to drink and eat vegetables for the proper functioning of the intestines because if the flora is compromised, all if this will be useless.

The invisible body, the bacterial flora of our intestines therefore has an imprinting that comes from eating habits of generations of our ancestors, childbirth, and our lifestyle. The analysis of these factors can lead us to a complete answer to these problems, to re-educate ourselves on the subject, and reduce discomfort.



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