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The food, this stranger

The food



THE FOOD,THIS STRANGER

The Genomic Diet 1st chapter. The food, this stranger

 

Food is a combination of nutrients from the plant and animal kingdoms and their derivatives. They maintain a person’s biological functions.

The food we eat have been selected by previous generations based on their availability, culture, and symbolism.

The food is almost always composed of these elements:

Water

Carbohydrates (sugars and carbohydrates)

Lipids (fats)

Proteins (proteins) Fibers

Vitamins

Minerals

Enzymes



Water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fibers may be present in variable amounts up to hundreds of grams down to micrograms. Nutrients such as vitamins and minerals are present in the order of micrograms per kilogram of food.

When we digest food, the nutrients are broken down in various essential constituents. They are then assimilated by the organism for the production of energy to create new cells, for tissue repair, and for the production of enzymes, antibodies, and hormones.

The body gets the essential nutrients. Unknown nutrients are synthesized by the body itself. The body needs to cope with energy and plastic.

Carbohydrates and lipids provide energy. Proteins build and rebuild the body.

Every time we eat, we use a variety of chemical principles. Nobody thinks of this basic concept, but in many religions and in popular culture, it is of utmost importance to cultivate and slaughter live food.

The Chinese and the Japanese say that if a person eats swordfish or tuna for more than three consecutive days, the person becomes aggressive. The reason why is because of the brutal way in which the animal is often killed.

I believe that, by respecting tradition, we can derive benefits. We introduce the constituents that produce the changes in us.

For example, drugs may lead to a state of well-being or they can be toxic and cause side effects.

With new science, nutraceutical and nutrigenomics can even change the status of the human body due to the chemical characteristics contained or added in food.

The food, therefore, is not an integral part of the body. We introduce or provoke changes in our body whenever we eat food. Those changes can either be positive, negative or neutral

You must also take into account the constant changes that foods undergo each year. Plants evolve and change like we do. Environmental pollution alters the way they adapt. And there’s also food adulteration.

It is therefore important for the well-being of the person to take the necessary nutrients in the right season and combine foods properly.

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The composition of aliments

aliments



THE COMPOSITION OF ALIMENTS

The Genomic Diet: 2st chapter  The Composition of aliments

There are carbohydrates and sugars in all aliments, especially vegetables. Carbohydrates, once ingested, are metabolized by the body into glucose, which is the energy reserve all organisms that can be easily assimilated.
Glucose is found in foods such as honey, fruits, or they are bound to other molecules such as lactose in milk.

We even have “simple sugars,” a single molecule which is absorbed directly and they are: glucose (fruits, honey, etc.), fructose (fruits, etc.), galactose (Milk), and mannose (Palm, birch).

The “dual carbs” have two molecules and they are sucrose. Sucrose is routinely used as a sweetener. White sugar is made up of glucose and fructose. There’s galactose in milk and glucose in beer.

Starch, glycogen and cellulose are “complex carbohydrates. They’re found in cereals, tubers and legumes. Cellulose, which can’t be digested due to the lack of specific enzymes of our body, are eliminated in the body with our feces.

Glycogen is an energy reserve found in in the liver and muscles and it is considered the food of the brain. Proteins are organic substances of animal or vegetable origin. They are used in building the cellular structures of an organism. They are also needed to make enzymes and hormones.

A proportion of these can also be used to produce energy and fabricate glucose due to a process called gluconeogenesis.



Amino acids.

It occurs when energy demands are not met due to a lack of carbohydrates and lipids. Proteins are complex molecules made up of twenty-two basic units called amino acids.

14 amino acids are synthesized by the body. 8 of them are essential they are not produced by the body. They must be introduced into the diet.

The egg is the only food that contains all of the amino acids. Aliments like veal, beef, fish, game, cheese, eggs and so on provide us with proteins of animal origin, while legumes, seaweed, grains, walnuts, chestnuts and so on provide proteins of plant origin. Omega 3 is found in aliments which ostrich meat, cheese made from organic milk, and fish.

Nuts and olives contain omegas 6-9.

The first type of fat is the “saturated fats.” The second is of vegetable origin and is called “monounsaturated fats.”

“Polyunsaturated fats” can both be of vegetable and animal origin, such as seed oil and olive oil and those of fish and pork.

Lipids are complex molecules. If they’re solid, they’re fats. If they’re liquid, they’re oils.

Fats, like carbohydrates, provide energy. But taking them excessively lets them accumulate in the body which results in weight gain.

Essential fatty acids are not synthesized by the body.

Lipids are also the co-factors responsible for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins and are essential for cell structure.

Proteins provide an average of four kilocalories per gram. Fats provide an average of nine kilocalories per gram. Sugars, in turn, provide an average of four kilocalories per gram.

Carbohydrates, once introduced into the body, are responsible for the increase in blood glucose, i.e. the value of glucose that is present in the blood.

The ‘glycemic index’ (GI) is the ability of food to raise blood glucose levels. Some carbohydrates are absorbed quickly and therefore have a high glycemic index. Others are absorbed more slowly and therefore have a low glycemic index.

The glycemic index of food varies due to several factors such as the way it’s cooked, the fat content, and the fiber content. For fruit and vegetables we should also take into account the degree of ripeness and variety.

The Glycemic Load (GL) of food is based on the IG. It is an estimate of how much a certain food can raise the blood glucose level of a person after eating. It’s important to consider, when choosing a diet, to take into account both the I. G and the CG of food.

The “fat-soluble vitamins” are A, D, E, and K. They are stored in the liver.

The “water-soluble vitamins” are to be taken daily in the diet. They are B complex, vitamin C and PP. Vitamins are essential for the proper functioning of metabolism and are present in almost all foods of both plant and animal origin. They can’t be synthesized by the body.

Like vitamins, “minerals” and “trace elements” are not synthesized, but they are largely responsible for the proper functioning of the body. A deficiency of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D can cause osteoporosis, and an excess of calcium can lead to kidney stones.

A decrease in trace elements or trace minerals, such as in the case of iodine, can result in hyper or hypothyroidism. Copper or nickel dysfunction during the absorption of iron and nickel can cause food allergies and gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux esophageal or colitis.

The lack of these important co-factors can produce major diseases that are often irreparable. The metabolic nutrition, therefore, is based not only on macro elements such as proteins, carbohydrates or lipids but most of all, they are based on the activators and regulators of metabolic functions. These components are always overlooked in everyday diet.

Let it be known that these components are present in all foods, and even water. We must remember that when we die, our bodies will turn to mineral salts.

Water is present throughout the body in varying proportions depending on the age of the individual and is essential for human life.

The human body cannot survive for long without water because it is as essential as oxygen.

Water is essential for the physiological processes and biochemical reactions within our body. It is the main element for the purification and, thanks to water, we eliminate metabolic waste.

It provides friction in the joints, keeps the skin elastic, regulates the body temperature, and plays a vital role in maintaining the pressure within our bodies.

Children are composed of 80% water. Adults are 70% water. The elderly are only 50% water.

We lose water every day. We need to compensate for the loss by drinking water every day.

The water balance of a healthy person is given by a simple calculation of multiplying your body weight by 0.03.

A person weighing 60 kg will have to drink 1.8 liters of water daily.

Let us remember, however, that our urine should be pale yellow in color.

If your urine is darker in color, you have to drink more water. If it’s clear like water, you need to readjust your intake. This kind of volume is only useful in cases of kidney stones.

Headaches may indicate a lack of hydration of the brain. Let us remember, however, that we also obtain water fro fruits, vegetables, and meat.

By taking it from fruits and vegetables, we also introduce “fiber” in our intestines. It’s a protective agent from toxic substances such as chemicals, dyes, and preservatives.

The fibers are divided into “soluble” and “insoluble.”

Soluble fibers reduce cholesterol, prevent diabetes, and do not provide calories. They do give a sense of satiety, however.

Soluble fibers are fermentable. They are the basis for the good development of intestinal flora thanks to the action of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS), such as inulin. They are mainly present in chicory, onion, artichokes, etc. They have a chelating action. Therefore, they interfere with the absorption of cholesterol and reduce sugar levels. However, they can cause constipation.

The insoluble fibers (not-fermentable) regularize the intestinal transit.

But we should not exaggerate the introduction of fiber to avoid creating nutritional deficiencies at the expense of Trace Elements and Minerals due to the presence of the phytic acid which hinders the absorption of Calcium, Iron, Zinc, and Selenium.

The fibers must also be of biological origin because if we introduce whole aliments, fiber is found in the outer part of the grain and may, therefore, contain harmful pollutants due to the chemicals used in agriculture.

Fiber intake should not exceed 30 g daily.

The enzymes are very important in the composition of aliments or can be produced by the body. They are critical because they catalyze and regulate all biochemical reactions in the body.

They are produced from DNA and their characteristic is to hasten or enhance chemical reactions.



 

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The human body and the foods

The human body



 

THE HUMAN BODY AND THE FOODS

The Genomic Diet: 3st chapter  The human body and the foods

The human body is traversed by food through the digestive, tract that starts in our mouth passes through the esophagus, goes to the stomach, exits through the duodenum before descending further into the small intestine and the large intestine, and finally, evacuated from the rectum as a waste product of digestion.

Children have 20 milk teeth by the age of 2 ½ years old. They eventually fall off at the age of six years to be replaced by permanent dentition. Permanent teeth consist of eight incisors, four canines, eight to twelve molars, and four pre-molars for a total of thirty-two to thirty-six teeth in adulthood.

The digestive system, in the human body, starts from the mouth and ends in the anal sphincter. In addition to the teeth, the taste buds are located in specific areas of the tongue that make us recognize what food tastes like.

The papillae of the tip are designed to taste sweetness. The side closest to the canines and pre-molars is inclined to savory tastes. Sour taste buds are near the internal part of the tongue. The bitter taste buds are at the end of the tongue.

The tongue also helps in digesting food thanks to the salivary glands. The largest of these are the parotid glands which emit saliva, a complex substance of water, minerals, mucus, and enzymes. It acts as a solvent and humectant to digestion, especially of carbohydrates thanks to ptyalin, a digestive enzyme.

Saliva also has anti-bacterial properties due to lysozyme and anti-bodies (sIgA secretory immunoglobulin A).

Saliva helps to remineralize teeth with calcium salts. Digestion begins in the mouth.

The proteins are broken down by the teeth, as well as carbohydrates and fats. Pre-digestion occurs due, lipase and amylase found in saliva.

Amylase deionizes food due to an enzyme called deiodinase. It’s made available to the thyroid as soon as possible since it’s necessary for iodine production. It is important to chew properly for the reasons described above because activates a “blood pumping” mechanism to the brain, thanks to the masticatory muscles.

The mouth has a pH of about 7. It tends toward alkalinity. When food is swallowed, it passes pharynx on the way to the stomach. The esophagus is about 25-35 cm long. The entrance to the stomach is called the cardias, the first sphincter that opens to let food pass through.

The pH in the esophagus is neutral. The stomach is very acidic. The pH ranges from neutral to 1-3.




The walls of the stomach need to endure a very acidic environment. They are covered with mucus. They are almost impervious to the hydrochloric acid that is responsible for the digestion of food. Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin to digest amino acids.

The food remains in the stomach a few minutes up to several hours. The pyloric sphincter connects the stomach to the duodenum. After the stomach, the food travels small parts of the small intestine at very short lengths of about 20-30 cm. But despite being limited in length, it still is of fundamental importance.

The first part of the small intestine is connected to the head of the pancreas, a gland that has massive endocrine and exocrine functions. The exocrine part produces pancreatic juices that are rich in enzymes while the endocrine part produces the hormones insulin and glucagon.

The pH of the duodenum is alkaline at about 7-8. The area is dominated by bacterial flora called Lactobacillus acidophilus.

The duodenum also has relationships with the liver and gallbladder. Bile is produced by the liver and is poured into the duodenum to emulsify fats.



The liver is the largest internal organ in the entire human body. The exocrine and endocrine gland that controls much of metabolism produces bile, controls the metabolism of carbohydrates through gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycogenolysis.

The food remains in the stomach a few minutes up to several hours. The pyloric sphincter connects the stomach to the duodenum. After the stomach, the food travels small parts of the small intestine at very short lengths of about 20-30 cm. But despite being limited in length, it still is of fundamental importance.

The first part of the small intestine is connected to the head of the pancreas, a gland that has massive endocrine and exocrine functions. The exocrine part produces pancreatic juices that are rich in enzymes while the endocrine part produces the hormones insulin and glucagon.

The pH of the duodenum is alkaline at about 7-8. The area is dominated by bacterial flora called Lactobacillus acidophilus.

The duodenum also has relationships with the liver and gallbladder. Bile is produced by the liver and is poured into the duodenum to emulsify fats.

The liver, in the human body, is the largest internal organ.  The exocrine and endocrine gland that controls much of metabolism produces bile, controls the metabolism of carbohydrates through gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycogenolysis.

Here, the chyme passes through the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending, and the sigmoid colon. The area is mainly filled with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Salivarius.

The food is then expelled as feces from the rectum through the anal sphincter. This short trip is to make laymen understand the concepts of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the gastrointestinal system.

I would like to seize your attention to some fundamental points to make the book easier to understand.

I spoke of minerals, pH, intestinal villi, bacterial flora, immune system, hormones, absorption and endogenous detoxification.

I avoided deepening the entire anatomy, physiology, and basic biochemistry to stimulate your curiosity about these subjects. These topics are almost always forgotten when it comes to nutrition, but in my opinion, they are essential The future of nutrition will be based only on these parameters and on these indications.



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